Epidemiology of HPV Infection and HPV-Related Cancers in Kazakhstan: a Review

Document Type: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Authors

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Nazarbayev University School of MedicineKazakhstan.

Abstract

Background: Cancer is one of the most prevalent causes of mortality worldwide. In the cervix it is considered to be
caused by different high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types. Although many studies have already been conducted
worldwide on the epidemiology of HPV infection and their oncogenic properties, limited data are available on HPV
prevalence, incidence and genotype specific dissemination in Kazakhstan. Methods: To review the distribution of HPV
infection, electronic databases (e.g. PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar) were searched for peer reviewed
articles in English. The study was performed during June-July 2017 with a review of 39 relevant articles, published up
to July 31, 2017. The following inclusion criteria were applied: general population data, cytology results available, and
use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or Hybrid Capture® 2, Digene Corp., USA for HPV detection. Results:
As reported in limited studies, the prevalence of HPV infection in Kazakhstan ranges from 43.8% to 55.8%. However,
the scenario with regard to epidemiology of HPV related cancers in Kazakhstan is not very clear. One study reported a
decline of laryngeal cancer observed during the recent years, whereas cervical cancer incidence has increased to about
3000 new cervical cancer cases, and about 1,000 cervical cancer deaths each year. Conclusion: The high incidence
of cervical cancer with a significant mortality rate in Kazakhstan is evidence of HPV infection abundance despite an
absence of HPV screening and low public awareness of the problem. Having a well-informed understanding of the role
of HPV infection could enhance the public’s acceptance of screening and intervention programs to reduce morbidity
and mortality in the country due to HPV infection. Thus, the purpose of this review article is to summarize the existing
data, identifying directions for future research on HPV epidemiology and HPV-related diseases in Kazakhstan.

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