Do Exposure to Arsenic, Occupation and Diet have Synergistic Effects on Prostate Cancer Risk?

Document Type: Research Articles

Authors

1 Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (INICSA), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.

2 Escuela de Nutrición, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas,Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.

3 Instituto de Biología Celular Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.

Abstract

Background: Diverse environmental exposures, as well as dietary and lifestyle factors, are associated with prostate
cancer (PC) etiology; however little is known about joint interactive influences. The aim of this study was to analyse
effects of diet combined with arsenic in drinking water and agricultural occupation on PC risk. Methods: A case-control
study was conducted in Córdoba, Argentina (period 2008-2015) including 147 cases of PC and 300 controls. All subjects
were interviewed about food consumption, socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics. A sample of drinking water
was taken to determine arsenic concentrations. Adherence scores to the Traditional Dietary Pattern were estimated, based
on a principal component factor analysis. A two-level logistic regression model was fitted in order to assess effects of
the Traditional Pattern, occupation and arsenic exposure on the occurrence of PC (outcome). Family history of PC was
considered as a clustering variable. Results: PC risk was greatest in subjects with high adherence to the Traditional Pattern
(OR 2.18; 95%IC 1.097–4.344). Subjects exposed to arsenic in drinking water above 0.01mg/l who simultaneously
performed agricultural activities showed a markedly elevated PC risk (OR 5.07; 95%IC 2.074-12.404). Variance of
the random effect of family history of PC was significant. conclusion: Diet, arsenic and occupation in agriculture exert
significant effects on PC risk. Further efforts are necessary to analyse risk factors integrally, in order to achieve a better
understanding of the complex causal network for PC in this multiple-exposure population.

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