Document Type: Research Articles
Departement of Oral Pathology and Maxillofacial, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Mayjen. Prof. Dr. Moestopo 47, Surabaya, Indonesia.
Background: Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) is a type of cancer that is often found in oral cavity and areas of
the head and neck. Viruses are major etiological factors through production of factors that can disturb proliferation
and apoptosis regulators such as p53i, c-myc and bcl-2. This study aimed to determine the molecular grading of oral
squamous cell carcinoma (OSCCs) infected with the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV). Methods: Twenty-seven OSCC patients
underwent biopsy to detect EBV infection through in situ hybridization for RNA EBV (EBER) and immunohistochemical
analysis of latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) and EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1). To assess molecular grades, cell
proliferation and apoptosis regulator expression i.e. inactive p53 (p53i), c-myc and bcl-2, were immunohistochemically
analysed. Results: The cases were divided into two groups; infected and non-infected by EBV. Regression analysis
showed that only EBNA-1 expression could affect p53i expression. Based on regression equations molecular grading of
OSCCs infected by EBV was divided into three: Grade I (low), EBNA-1 expression was 7.60, and p53i expression
was 9.74-17.5; Grade II (medium), EBNA-1 expression was 7.61-19.7, and p53i 17.5-30.1; Grade III (high), EBNA-1
expression was 19.71, and p53i ≥ 30.1. Conclusion: In OSCC infected with EBV, only EBNA-1 expression can
influence p53i expression.