Oral Contraceptive and Breast Cancer Risks: a Case Control Study in Six Referral Hospitals in Indonesia

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Center for Humanities and Health Management Research and Development, National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Jakarta, Indonesia.

2 Faculty of Public Health, University of Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia.


Objective: This study aimed to understand the effects of the use of oral contraceptive to breast cancer risk in six
referral hospitals in Indonesia. Methods: The research design was hospital based case-control, conducted in 2013.
Population was women patients aged 15 years and above in six cancer-referral hospitals in five provinces. Total of 762
people were included in this study consisting of 381 who are diagnosed with breast cancer as confirmed by histopathologic
examination in inpatient surgery ward, and 381 people who are not diagnosed with breast cancer based on interview
in outpatient surgery ward as control group. A set of data were collected including the use of oral contraceptives, age,
early menarche, childbirth status, breastfeeding status, obesity, unhealthy diet, history of benign breast tumors, family
history of breast cancer, and age of menopause. Result: Results showed that Odds Ratio (OR) of patients using oral
contraceptive (95% CI 1.65– 5.09) as compared to people who did not use oral contraceptive. Conclusion: Use of oral contraceptive
in patients was indicated to increase the risk of breast cancer. Longer the duration of using oral contraceptive tend to
have higher the risk of breast cancer.


Main Subjects