Nutrient Patterns and Risk of Breast Cancer among Iranian Women: a Case- Control Study

Document Type: Methodological papers

Authors

1 Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Objective: To explore the role of nutrient patterns in the etiology of breast cancer (BCa) among Iranian women.
Methods: The study included 134 newly diagnosed cases of BCa and 267 hospitalized controls. A validated
semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess dietary intake. Nutrient patterns were obtained
using principal component analysis using Varimax rotation and logistic regression was performed to estimate breast
cancer risk. Results: We identified 4 major nutrient patterns. First was high in consumption of vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5,
B6, B9, C, magnesium, iron, carbohydrate, fiber, selenium, zinc, protein, potassium, and calcium. The second nutrient
pattern included Vitamins B12, A and cholesterol, while the third featured vitamin D, EPA and DHA. The fourth was
characterized by vitamin E, MUFA and saturated fatty acids. After adjusting for age, patterns 1 and 3 were associated
with a lower risk of BCa (OR=0.51, 95% CI: 0.33- 0.80, P=0.003, OR=0.64, 95% CI: 0.42- 0.98, P= 0.04 respectively).
However, after further adjustment for all confounders in multivariate analysis, the association remained significant only
for pattern 1 (OR=0.52, 95% CI: 0.32- 0.82, P=0.006). Conclusion: Adherence to a nutrient pattern rich in vitamin B,
minerals and fiber is associated with a lower risk of breast cancer.

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