The Anti-Angiogenic Effect of Atorvastatin in Glioblastoma Spheroids Tumor Cultured in Fibrin Gel: in 3D in Vitro Model

Document Type: Research Articles

Authors

1 Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 School of Medicine Heart and Vascular Institute, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA.

3 Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

4 School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Purpose: Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) is the most aggressive glial neoplasm. Researchers have exploited the
fact that GBMs are highly vascularized tumors. Anti-angiogenic strategies including those targeting VEGF pathway
have been emerged for treatment of GBM. Previously, we reported the anti-inflammatory effect of atorvastatin on
GBM cells. In this study, we investigated the anti-angiogenesis and apoptotic activity of atorvastatin on GBM cells.
Methods: Different concentrations of atorvastatin (1, 5, 10μM) were used on engineered three-dimensional (3D)
human tumor models using glioma spheroids and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial cells (HUVECs) in fibrin gel
as tumor models. To reach for these aims, angiogenesis as tube-like structures sprouting of HUVECs were observed
after 24 hour treatment with different concentrations of atorvastatin into the 3-D fibrin matrix and we focused on it by
angiogenesis antibody array. After 48 hours exposing with different concentrations of atorvastatin, cell migration of
HUVECs were investigated. After 24 and 48 hours exposing with different concentrations of atorvastatin VEGF, CD31,
caspase-3 and Bcl-2 genes expression by real time PCR were assayed. Results: The results showed that atorvastatin
has potent anti-angiogenic effect and apoptosis inducing effect against glioma spheroids. Atorvastatin down-regulated
the expression of VEGF, CD31 and Bcl-2, and induced the expression of caspase-3 especially at 10μM concentration.
These effects are dose dependent. Conclusion: These results suggest that this biomimetic model with fibrin may provide
a vastly applicable 3D culture system to study the effect of anti-cancer drugs such as atorvastatin on tumor malignancy
in vitro and in vivo and atorvastatin could be used as agent for glioblastoma treatment.

Keywords

Main Subjects