Document Type: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Department of Biochemistry, Cancer and Radiation Countermeasures Unit, , North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong, Meghalaya, India.
Cancers are complex diseases having several unique features, commonly described as ‘hallmarks of cancer’. Among
them, altered signaling pathways are the common characteristic features that drive cancer progression; this is achieved
due to mutations that lead to the activation of growth promoting(s) oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressors.
As a result of which, cancer cells increase their glycolytic rate by consuming a large amount of glucose, and convert
a majority of glucose to lactate even in the presence of oxygen known as the “Warburg effect”. Tumor cells like other
cells are strictly dependent on energy for growth and survival; therefore, understanding energy metabolism will give
us an idea to develop new effective anti-cancer therapies that target cancer energy production pathways. This review
summarizes the roles of tumor suppressors and oncogenes and their products that provide metabolic advantages to
cancer cells which in turn leads to the establishment of the “Warburg effect” and ultimately leads to cancer progression.
Understanding cancer cell’s vulnerability will provide potential targets for its control.