Induction of Apoptosis by an Extract of Persian Gulf Marine Mollusc, Turbo Coronatus through the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species in Mouse Melanoma Cells

Document Type: Research Articles

Authors

1 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Research Center Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 The Marine Biology and Fishery Science Department, Persian Gulf Institute, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, Iran.

Abstract

Objective: A variety of approaches such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormonal therapy and
immunotherapy are used to treat melanomas, but unfortunately in most case, the response is very weak and often side
effects are serious. This study concerns selective toxicity of an extract of Turbo coronatus on cells and mitochondria from
a syngeneic mouse model of melanoma. Methods: Cells and mitochondria isolated from extra tumoral and melanoma
tissues were exposed toa T. coronatus crude extract and fractions obtained by gel-filtration chromatography and assayed
for mitochondrial and cellular parameters. Result: Crude extract (375, 750 and 1,500 μg/ml) and fraction 1; F1; (275,
550 and 1100 μg/ml) of T. coronatus extract induced a significant (p<0.05) increase of the reactive oxygen species
(ROS) level, swelling of mitochondria, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), release of cytochrome
c and caspase-3 activation only in the mitochondria and cells obtained from melanoma but not extra tumoral tissues. In
addition, the F1 fraction decreased the percentage of viable cells and induced apoptosis in melanoma cells. Conclusion:
For the first time we could demonstrate that the F1 fraction of a T. coronatus extract, selectively induces ROS mediated
cytotoxicity by directly targeting mitochondria in melanoma tissues and it may be a suitable candidate for novel drug
treatment of malignant melanomas.

Keywords

Main Subjects