Document Type: Research Articles
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan 20155, Indonesia.
Department of Forestry, Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Jl. Tri Dharma Ujung No. 1 Medan, North Sumatra, 20155, Indonesia.
Mangrove and Bio-Resources Group, Center of Excellence for Natural Resources Based Technology, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan 20155, Indoneseia.
Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Tjut Nyak Dhien, Medan, Indonesia.
Background: Secondary metabolites from the group of isoprenoid compounds are widely distributed in mangrove
plants. Polyisoprenoids (dolichol and polyprenol) are known to have benefits as anticancer agents. The present study
was conducted to determine the cytotoxic potential of polyisoprenoids in leaves from seventeen selected mangrove
species against colon cancer (WiDr) cells. Methods: Cytotoxic activity was evaluated by MTT assay in vitro using
WiDr human colon cancer cells and 3T3 fibroblasts from Swiss albino mouse embryo tissue as controls. Mechanisms
of action were approached by assessing apoptosis and the cell cycle using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy
with annexin V-FITC, as well as expression of Bcl-2 and cyclin D1 by immunocytochemistry. Results: Polyisoprenoids
from N. fruticans leaves demonstrated the highest anticancer activity, with an IC50 of 180.2 μg/mL, as compared to
397.7 μg/mL against 3T3 normal cells. Significant decrease in the expression of Bcl-2 and cyclin D1 was also noted,
facilitating apoptosis and arrest of the cell cycle in the G0-G1 phase in WiDr cells. The present study showed for the
first time that polyisoprenoids from N. fruticans exhibit concrete anticancer activity in vitro, decreasing cell proliferation
and inducing apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Conclusions: Polyisoprenoids isolated from N. fruticans leaves may have
promise as a source of anticancer agents.