Prevalence of Cervical Dysplasia in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women at the Sihanouk Hospital Center of HOPE, Phnom Penh , Cambodia

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Sihanouk Hospital Center of HOPE, Cambodia.

2 Johns Hopkins University, United States.

3 Harvard Medical School, United States.

4 Institute for Technology Assessment, United States.

5 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The George Washington University School of Medicine Washington, DC, United States.

6 Lūcerent Clinical Solutions, Cambodia.


Introduction: There is a high burden of cervical cancer in Cambodia, yet published data on the prevalence of cervical
dysplasia and the risk factors contributing to the development of pre-cancerous lesions in Cambodian women is very
limited. In addition, as it is well known that HIV positivity increases cervical cancer risk, it is important to quantify
the prevalence of cervical dysplasia and carcinoma among Cambodian women living with HIV disease. Methods: A
cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 499 HIV+ and 501 HIV- Cambodian women at the Sihanouk
Hospital Center of HOPE. Visual inspection with 5% acetic acid was the method of screening. Colposcopy was performed
on all VIA+ patients, and subsequent treatment followed WHO guidelines. Logistic regression models, stratified by
both HIV+ and HIV- groups, were used to assess significant factors associated with having dysplasia. Results: VIA+
results were prevalent in both the HIV+ and HIV- arms of the study. The HIV+ patients were more likely to have a
lower age at coitarche, lower weight, 2 or more lifetime sexual partners, two or greater pregnancies, or be unmarried.
The estimated prevalence of VIA detected cervical dysplasia was 11% for the entire study sample, 13.4% in the HIV
positive (HIV+) group and 8.6% in the HIV negative (HIV-) group (OR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.48; p=0.01). For the
HIV+ group, having a history of 4 or more full-term pregnancies (OR: 3.42; 95% CI: 1.01-11.64; p=0.049) was found
to be significantly associated with having an increased risk of developing cervical dysplasia in the multivariate model.
Conclusion: Cervical dysplasia is prevalent in both HIV positive and negative Cambodian women and a VIA based
national screening programs need to be developed and expanded to provide access to affordable and effective treatment
for cervical dysplasia and cancers.


Main Subjects

Volume 20, Issue 2
February 2019
Pages 653-659
  • Receive Date: 27 December 2017
  • Revise Date: 30 May 2018
  • Accept Date: 10 February 2019
  • First Publish Date: 10 February 2019