The Anti-Proliferative and Pro-Apoptotic Properties of Ethanol Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. Leaves Ethanolic Extract Nanoparticles on T47D Cell Lines

Document Type: Research Articles

Authors

1 Nanomedicine Center of Innovation, University Sumatera Utara, Indonesia.

2 Department of Pharmacology Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University Sumatera Utara, Indonesia.

3 Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University Sumatera Utara, Indonesia.

Abstract

Objectives: Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. is a plant which has the potential as an anti-cancer agent. To
enhance the bioavailability of an extract, it is necessary to transform the extract into nanoparticles. This research aimed
to create nanoparticles of the extract and investigate the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptosis effects on T47D breast
cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: The extraction with ethanol was performed using maceration method. The
nanoparticles were prepared by using the ionic gelation method. Cytotoxic assay method evaluation of the proliferation
of T47D cell line (using doubling time) was carried out using the MTT assay. Apoptosis was observed using the flow
cytometry assay. Results: Treatment with Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. ethanolic extract nanoparticles
(PAEEN) inhibited the proliferation of T47D cell lines after 48 hours and 72 hours of incubation at concentrations of
22.3 μg/mL, 44.6 μg/mL, and 89.2 μg/mL. The viable cells were 93%, 86%, 54% (48 hours), and 98%, 71%, 57%
(72 hours), respectively. The nanoparticles of extract also induced apoptosis at concentrations of ¼ IC50 (2.16%), ½
IC50 (1.57%), and IC50 (2.43%). Conclusion: PAEEN exhibits the anti-proliferative effect on T47D breast cancer cells
via apoptosis. Further study is required to confirm the mechanism of PAEEN in the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis
induction on T47D cells.

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