Document Type: Research Articles
Department of Biochemistry, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Ananthapuramu, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Department of Corporate Secretary ship, Queen Mary’s College (Autonomous), Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Laboratory of Insect Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Department of Animal Biology, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
Background: Smokeless tobacco (SLT) acts as a modifier of erythrocyte and platelet membranes by disrupting
antioxidant system with the concomitant increase in free radical production and induction of apoptosis. Methods: The
SLT users was that individuals used gutkha and khaini products (Khaleja/mahak chaini brand respectively) habitually,
at least >20 times per week consists of 50-60 g during the last 2-4 years. Results: The gutkha and khaini users found
to be significantly increased levels of iNOS (Inducible nitric oxide synthase) enzyme in plasma, erythrocytes, and
platelet membranes when compared to normal controls. The gutkha and khaini users exhibited that the significant
increase in the levels of gene expression of apoptotic proteins (Bcl2-B cell lymphoma gene 2, Bax, caspases 8, caspase
10, and caspase 12), IL-6 (Interleukin-6), and decreased levels of TNF-α (Tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and decreased
expression of caspase 12 of khaini users were observed from blood samples. The significant increase in the concentrations
of peroxynitrites (ONOO-), nitric oxide (NO) (Nitrates and nitrites), malondialdehyde (MDA), cholesterol, and
phospholipids were reported in the smokeless tobacco users of erythrocytes and platelets. The experimental subjects
showed that the increased osmotic fragility and decreased membrane fluidity of erythrocytes and platelets in comparison
with non-tobacco users. The normal subjects had been exposed that the proper functioning of antioxidant enzymes and
decreased enzyme activities of antioxidants were reported by SLT users. Conclusion: The smokeless tobacco products
are exerted chronic damage to membranes of erythrocytes and platelets and elevation of apoptosis in the prolonged
periods of human male volunteers.