Evaluation of VEGF, FGF and PDGF and Serum Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines in Patients with Glioma and Meningioma in Southern Iran

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Gastroenterohepatology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

2 Department of Neurosurgery, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.

3 Department of Neurosurgery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.


Background: Meningioma and glioma are common central nervous system tumors. Hypoxic tumor cells secrete
angiogenic cytokines, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and
basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) that stimulate neovascular formation and inflammatory cytokine, such as TNF-α
and IL-1β. We measured these serum levels in patients with glial cell tumors and meningioma. Materials and Methods:
This was a case-control study in 2014-2015 on patients diagnosed with meningioma/glioma. All demographic and clinical
data were registered. The tumor volume and intraoperative bleeding were recorded. Serum levels of VEGF, PDGF,
FGF, TNF-α and IL-1β were measured by ELISA methods. Results: Ninety-six patients were enrolled in this study,
32 in each group. Patients VEGF level with cranial tumor, glioma/meningioma had increased. VEGF level was highest
among grade IV tumors, larger tumors, and in glioblastoma multiform. There was an upsurge in VEGF serum level as
glioma grade increased. The highest VEGF levels were seen in parasagittal meningioma. In contrast to VEGF, PDGF
was slightly elevated in glial cell tumors, which was significantly elevated in meningioma. Higher PDGF correlated
with increased intraoperative bleeding, especially in meningioma cases. Oligodendroglial tumors expressed higher
PDGF levels in contrast to other glial tumors. FGF level was not statistically significant. TNF-α and IL-1β expressions
were significantly higher in the meningioma and glioma group in comparison to control group. Conclusion: We found
increased VEGF and PDGF serum levels in CNS patient’s tumor. A different role for PDGF was found in the pathogenesis
of neovascularization of meningioma, as well as oligodendroglioma. No significant result was found for FGF. TNF-α
and IL-1β can serve as key prognostic biomarker in high-grade glioma and meningioma patients.


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