Risk Factor Analysis for Breast Cancer in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women of Punjab, India

Document Type: Research Articles

Authors

1 Human Cytogenetics Laboratory, Department of Human Genetics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India.

2 Department of Surgery, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Vallah, Amritsar, Punjab, India.

3 Dept of pathology, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Vallah, Amritsar, Punjab, India.

4 4Department of Radiotherapy, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Vallah, Amritsar, Punjab, India.

5 Department of Biochemistry, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Vallah, Amritsar, Punjab, India.

Abstract

Objective: Amritsar, the second largest town of agrarian state of Punjab, India reports high number of breast cancer cases every year. The present study investigated the etiology of breast cancer using various obesity indices and other epidemiological factors among breast cancer patients residing in and around Amritsar city. Methods: In this case control study, risk factors for breast cancer were analyzed in 542 female subjects: 271 females with breast cancer patients and 271 unrelated healthy females matched for age as control females. Results: Bivariate analysis for risk factors in cases and controls showed a lower risk (OR=0.65, 95% CI 0.43-0.99, p=0.04) in obese cases with BMI≥25kg/m2 as compared to subjects with normal BMI. Risk factor analysis showed that parameter which provided risk for cancer in postmenopausal women was obesity and in premenopausal women was parity. Postmenopausal women with BMI (overweight: OR=0.39, 95% CI 0.17-0.92, p=0.03; obese: OR= 0.26, 95% CI 0.13-0.52, p=0.00), WC (OR=0.17, 95% CI 0.05-0.52, p=0.00) and WHtR (p=0.02) had highr risk. Premenopausal women with 3 or less than 3 children had a higher risk (OR=5.54, 95 % CI 2.75-11.19, p=0.00) than postmenopausal women when compared to women with more than 3 children. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that low parity (≤3) substantially increased the risk for breast cancer (OR=4.80, 95% CI 2.34-9.85, p=0.00) in premenopausal women. Conclusion: Obesity, parity associated breast cancer risk and reduced breastfeeding cumulatively predispose the premenopausal women of this region to higher risk of breast cancer.
 

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