Prevalence of Atrophic Gastritis in Kazakhstan and the Accuracy of Pepsinogen Tests to Detect Gastric Mucosal Atrophy

Document Type: Research Articles

Authors

1 Institute of Clinical and Preventive Medicine, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.

2 Faculty of Medicine, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.

3 Academic Histology Laboratory, Riga, Latvia.

4 Digestive Disease Centre GASTRO, Riga, Latvia.

5 Regional Diagnostic Centre, Almaty, Kazakhstan.

6 Central City Clinical Hospital, Almaty, Kazakhstan.

7 Semey Regional Oncology Centre, Semey, Kazakhstan.

8 Astana Medical University, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.

9 International High School of Medicine, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.

10 Central Asian Cancer Institute, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.

11 Eurasian Institute for Cancer Research, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.

12 Prevention and Implementation Group, Section of Early Detection and Prevention, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.

Abstract

Background: Atrophic gastritis is considered precursor condition for gastric cancer. There is so far limited evidence on the performance of pepsinogens for atrophy detection in Central Asia. The aim of our study was to detect the prevalence of atrophic gastritis in the asymptomatic adult population in Kazakhstan as well as address the accuracy of pepsinogen testing in atrophy detection. Methods: Healthy individuals aged 40-64 were included. Upper endoscopy and pepsinogens (PG) evaluation were performed. PG were analysed in plasma by latex agglutination. Cut off values were used to define decreased PG values (PGR ≤ 3 and PG I ≤ 70 ng/mL); severely decreased PG values (PGR ≤ 2 and PG I ≤ 30 ng/mL). Biopsies were analyzed and obtained according to the updated Sydney System. PG test sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy were assessed using the histological diagnosis as the “gold standard”. Results: Altogether 157 individuals - female 40,1% and male 59,9% were included. Histologically, moderate to severe corpus atrophy, was present only in 1,3% cases. From all study subjects, 26,8% had decreased plasma PG values with cut-off values PGR ≤ 3 and PG I ≤ 70 ng/mL. The sensitivity of the PG test with this cut-off values was 50,0%, specificity 73,5%, overall accuracy 73,2% for detection of moderate to severe atrophy in the corpus. The sensitivity of PG test with cut-off values PGR ≤ 2 and PG I ≤30 ng/mL was 50,0%, specificity 90,9% and overall accuracy 90,4%. Conclusions: The prevalence of gastric mucosal atrophy was low in the Kazakh population. Serological PG test screening nevertheless can play an important role in the diagnosis of gastric precancerous lesions. However, the diagnostic accuracy of the PG test is mainly dependent on the cut-off values for positive results.

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