Opium Use and Head and Neck Cancers: A Matched Case-Control Study in Iran

Document Type: Research Articles

Authors

1 Neuroscience Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

2 Physiology Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

3 Environmental Health Engineering Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

4 Adjunct Research Fellow, Monash Centre for Occupational & Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia

5 Health Services Management Research Center, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

6 Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Shafa Hospital, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

7 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

8 Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

9 Clinical Research Unit, Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

10 Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

11 Department of Hematology and Oncology, Bahonar Hospital, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Abstract

Background: Head and Neck (H and N) cancers include malignant tumors of the nasal cavity, pharynx, paranasal sinuses, oral cavity, larynx and salivary glands. Opium use might be related to these cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between Opium and its Derivatives (O and D) use and the incidence of H and N cancers. Methods: In this case-control study conducted in Kerman, 140 patients with H and N cancers and 280 healthy controls (matched for age, gender, and place of residence) were included. Information about their use of O and D, cigarette smoking, alcohol and diet were collected using a structured questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression was used to investigate the relation between variables. Results: The use of opioids was associated with an increased risk of HandN cancers (Adjusted OR: 8.13; CI: 4.08-16.2). A significant dose-response relation between O and D use was observed, with high use Adjusted OR=8.91; 95% CI: 4.03-19.65 and low use Adjusted OR=6.52; 95% CI: 3.18- 13.36. This dose-response association was stronger in patients with laryngeal cancer and opioids use, with high use Adjusted OR = 11.17; 95% CI=4.48-28.09 and low use Adjusted OR = 9.46; 95% CI= 3.97- 22.52. Conclusion: The results show that opium use can be considered as an important risk factor for H and N cancers. Also in Iran, opium seems to play a more important role than cigarette smoking.
 

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