Document Type: Research Articles
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Rajavithi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Rajavithi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.
Objective: To compare the Ki-67 index of endometrial cancer cells before and after treatment between the metformin and placebo group in women with endometrial cancer (EC). Methods: This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducting in non-diabetic women who diagnosed with endometrioid EC and had a schedule for elective surgical staging at Rajavithi Hospital between August 2018 and June 2019. Tissue specimens were obtained via endometrial curettage at the time of initial diagnosis (pre-treatment) and hysterectomy (post-treatment) to assess the value of the Ki-67 index by immunochemistry. Patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups: metformin and placebo group. Metformin 850 mg or placebo 1 tab were administered once daily for at least 7 days, starting on the first morning after recruitment until one day before surgery. Baseline characteristics (e.g., age, body mass index, co-morbidities) including surgical and pathological characteristics were recorded. The metabolic effect of metformin was also evaluated by a recording of fasting blood sugar, HbA1C and potential adverse events including nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and hypoglycemic symptom. Results: A total of 49 EC patients were included in this study. Twenty-five patients were assigned to the metformin group and 24 patients were assigned to the placebo group. Baseline demographic, surgical, and pathological characteristics between the 2 groups were similar. Metformin significantly changed the Ki-67 index relative to placebo, with a mean decrease of 23.3% (p=0.001) and a mean proportional decrease of 39.1% (p=0.006) before and after treatment. Additionally, no significant differences were detected in metabolic effects and adverse events between the metformin and the placebo groups. Conclusion: Short-term treatment with an oral metformin significantly reduced a proliferative marker Ki-67 index in women with endometrioid EC awaiting surgical staging. This study supports the biological effect of metformin in EC and potential applications in the adjuvant treatment in EC patients.