Association of Diabetes with Oral Cancer- an Enigmatic Correlation

Document Type: Research Articles

Authors

1 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Kamineni Institute of Dental Sciences, Narketpally, Telangana, India.

2 Department of Radiology, MNJ institute of oncology and regional cancer center, Hyderabad, India.

3 Department of Microbiology, MNJ institute of oncology and regional cancer center, Hyderabad, India.

Abstract

Introduction: Association of diabetes mellitus (DM) with head and neck cancers (HNC) is still controversial. In some studies, diabetic patients had an increased risk of cancer at some HNC subsites like oral cancer, while in other studies this risk was decreased. So, the present study aims to evaluate the association of diabetes mellitus, oral cancer with and without metformin and the role of habits in association with DM and metformin in the etiology of oral cancer. Materials and methods: This study was undertaken in the Kamineni Institute of Dental Sciences in collaboration with MNJ Institute of Oncology and Regional Cancer Centre, Hyderabad. The study includes 2 main groups, they are 500 Oral cancer patients and Control group includes 500 age and gender-matched patients with habits without any oral precancerous lesion/conditions. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Results: Out of 1000 subjects inverse relation of DM with oral cancer was observed. On comparison between oral cancer, diabetes and habits in study group and control group, decreased risk was observed with smokers (OR: 1.131and 95%CI: 0.68 -1.86) and non-chewers (OR: 2.43 and 95% CI: 1.31 - 4.49) and non-alcoholics (OR: 1.78 and 95% C.I:1.18 - 2.68). Metformin use among diabetic participants was associated with a decreased risk of oral cancer (OR: 0.51 and 95% C.I: 0.33 - 0.77). A negative association was observed in smokers (OR: 0.19 and 95% C.I.: 0.078 - 0.459), non-chewers (OR: 0.24 and 95% C.I : 0.11- 0.53) and non-alcoholics (OR: 0.46 and 95% C.I. : 0.29 - 0.727). Conclusion: Thus the present population based study results suggest an inverse association of DM and oral cancer with metformin and negative association of habits with DM and Metformin in etiology of oral cancer.

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