Document Type: Research Articles
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
Objective: Chromosome detection is important in the diagnosis and prognosis of Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients. About 50% of MDS patients have chromosomal abnormalities. Moreover, chromosome 5 and 7 are common genetic abnormalities in MDS patients and use to identify prognosis risk group and the proper treatment in MDS patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate chromosomal abnormalities and clinical features of MDS patients in upper northern Thailand. Methods: Fifty bone marrow (BM) specimens were examined by conventional cytogenetic (CC) technique and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique for detected chromosome 5 and 7 abnormalities. The clinical features were comparison between MDS patients with chromosomal abnormalities and those with normal karyotype. Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 8/50 MDS patients by CC and 17/50 cases by FISH technique. When the CC and FISH techniques were combined, chromosomal abnormalities increased to 21/50 cases. Abnormalities of isolated chromosome 5 were found in 13 cases and were associated with lower level of percentage blast of BM (p = 0.003) and higher level of hemoglobin (p = 0.019). Moreover, abnormalities of chromosome 7 were found in 3 cases, 1 case of isolated del(7q) and 2 cases of -7 and del(7q) with complex abnormalities. These three cases were associated with higher level of percentage blast of BM (p = 0.010). Conclusion: This study showed the frequency and pattern of chromosomal abnormalities of MDS patients in upper northern Thailand were different from other populations. MDS with isolated chromosome 5 abnormalities had clinical characteristics corresponding with patients in good prognosis risk group. However, MDS patients with chromosome 7 and complex abnormalities showed higher percentage blast of BM which high risk to progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Combined CC and FISH techniques detect chromosomal abnormalities with greater frequency than when either technique is used alone.