Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Koh Kong, Cambodia

Document Type: Research Articles

Authors

1 Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University Hospital, Pathumthani, Thailand.

2 Digestive diseases Research Center (DRC), Thammasat University, Pathumthani, Thailand.

3 Department of Medicine, Chulabhorn International College of Medicine (CICM) at Thammasat University, Pathumthani, Thailand.

4 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, Thailand.

5 Department of Surgery, Rajavithi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

6 Gastrointestinal and Liver Center, Bangkok Medical Center, Bangkok, Thailand.

7 Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Yufu, Japan.

Abstract

Background: Gastric cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer mortality in Cambodia, can be prevented by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication. There is limited data about H. pylori strains in Cambodia. This study aimed to evaluate H. pylori prevalence and antibiotic resistance in Koh Kong, Cambodia. Methods: 118 Cambodian dyspeptic patients were scheduled to enter this study and 58 were enrolled between July and September 2019. All patients underwent upper GI endoscopy. 3 gastric biopsies were obtained for rapid urease test, H. pylori culture with E-test and GenoType® HelicoDr (Hain Lifescience factory, Germany). 3-mL blood sample was collected for CYP2C19 genotyping. Results: 58 subjects were enrolled (40 females, 18 males, mean age 43.8 years). Overall H. pylori prevalence was 31.0%. Antibiotic resistance rates were 78.6% for metronidazole, 50.0% for fluoroquinolones, and 27.8% for clarithromycin. There was no amoxicillin and tetracycline resistance. More than half of H. pylori strains (57.1%) were multidrug-resistant. Most (35.7%) were resistant to metronidazole and quinolone. Poor, intermediate and rapid metabolizers were 5.5%, 38.9% and 55.6%, respectively. Conclusions: H. pylori infection remains common infection in Cambodia. High prevalence of clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin and multidrug-resistant H. pylori is still major problems in Cambodia. Treatment regimens without clarithromycin and quinolone such as 14-day bismuth-based quadruple therapy might be an appropriate choice for H. pylori eradication in this particular area.

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