Factors that Affected Women Undergoing Cryotherapy Following Cancer Screening with Visual Inspection of the Cervix Using Acetic Acid Method

Document Type: Research Articles

Authors

1 1Field Epidemiology Training Program, Master of Public Health Postgraduate Program, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

2 Port Health Office Class II, Jayapura, Papua, Indonesia.

3 Clinical Epidemiology Program, Master of Clinical Medicine Postgraduate Program, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

4 Temanggung District Health Office, Central Java, Indonesia.

5 Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada/Dr Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

6 Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

7 Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada/Dr Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Abstract

Background: The Indonesian government has applied the cancer “see and treat” method which involves a visual inspection using acetic acid (VIA), followed by a cryotherapy procedure, to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. However, compliance with the program is still low in the targeted population. This study aims to see what factors influence women to receive cryotherapy treatment if they have positive VIA result. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 356 VIA positive women, aged 30-50 years old, registered at Temanggung District Health Office, Central Java, Indonesia between March 29 and April 31, 2018. Data on whether subjects underwent cryotherapy, their demographic profile, education, knowledge about cryotherapy, and family support were collected in a direct interview using a structured questionnaire. A statistical analysis was carried out to observe the influence of all the variables on subjects’ decisions on cryotherapy. Results: In our study, 217 women (60.69%) received cryotherapy, while 139 women (39.04%) did not. Among all the variables analyzed, the factors affecting the subjects’ likelihood to undergo cryotherapy are their knowledge about cervical cancer and screening (PR=0.776;95%CI=0.660-0.913;p=0.003), their residences distance from health centre (PR=0.795;95%CI=0.650-0.971;p=0.016), permission from their family (PR=0.675;95%CI=0.556-0.820;p=0.018), and being accompanied by their family (PR=0.824;95%CI=0.700-0.970;p=0.026). Age, marital status, occupation, and education background did not show a significant correlation with the women’s decisions to receive cryotherapy. Conclusions: Interestingly, the result of our study indicates that women are less willing to undergo the cryotherapy procedure if they have good knowledge about the cryotherapy procedure and its importance in cervical cancer’s prevention. Providing higher quality and more accessible health facilities with cryotherapy services are important in influencing women’s willingness to receive cryotherapy. Family support, in the form of permission given by spouses, and if they accompanied the patient to seek cryotherapy care are observed as factors influencing women’s willingness to have the procedure.
 

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