BCR-ABL Gene Transcript Types of Patients with Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Document Type: Research Articles

Authors

1 Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

2 Molecular Biology Laboratory (Integrated Research Laboratory), Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

3 Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada/ Dr Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

4 Medical Study Program, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

5 Basic Medical Science Study Program, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Abstract

The aim of this study was analyzing the BCR-ABL transcript types of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in Dr Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. This study is very relevant because the data concerning BCR-ABL gene transcript types is very limited in Indonesia. Furthermore, it is important for patient’s management, particularly in defining the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) therapy and monitoring after therapy. The introduction of TKIs has become a major advance in the management of patients with CML, especially in the chronic phase (CML-CP), in which most patients are diagnosed. Methods: One hundred eighty five (185) of 370 recruited patients were included in this study (2010–2014). RNA samples were isolated from mononuclear cells of peripheral blood of the subjects taken at primary diagnosis. Detection of BCR-ABL gene transcript types was done using multiplex reverse transcriptase PCR (multiplex RT-PCR) and/or nested PCR following the cDNA synthesis. When the first PCR set failed to amplify the BCR-ABL gene, RT-conventional PCR and/or nested PCR would be applied. The proportion of each transcript type was calculated among the BCR-ABL positive CML patients. Results: Approximately 99% (183/185) of CML patients are BCR-ABL positive, with the most common type is major b3a2 (136/183; 74.3%), followed by major b2a2 (41/183; 22.4%). Two samples (1.1%) showed co-expression of b3a2 and b2a2; 1 sample showed co-expression of b3a2 and fragment at 500bp; and 3 samples showed uncommon fragments. Conclusion: Ninety nine percent (99%) of CML patients in Yogyakarta, Indonesia are BCR-ABL positive, with 74.3% have b3a2 transcript, 22.4% have b2a2 trascript, 1.1% have co-expression of b3a2 and b2a2 transcript, and the rest (2.2%) have uncommon bands that still need to be confirmed.

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