Gastric Cancer in Aktobe Region of Western Kazakhstan from 2009 to 2018: Incidence Rates, Trends, and Five-Year Survival

Document Type: Research Articles

Authors

1 West Kazakhstan Marat Ospanov Medical University, 68, Maresyev Street, Aktobe, Kazakhstan.

2 Tbilisi State Medical University, 33, Vazha-Pshavela Ave., Tbilisi, Georgia.

Abstract

Objective: to assess the current state of gastric cancer (GC) incidence and its five-year survival across Aktobe region of western Kazakhstan from 2009 to 2018 by presenting key indicators and analyzing the most significant features. Methods: Rough incidence rates (per 100,000) and average annual percent changes (aAPCs) were estimated for each age group at diagnosis with respect to gender, ethnicity, residence, the disease stages, tumor subsite, and histology type using linear regression analysis, including the prognostic index for 2019-2020. Overall five-year survival rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Overall GC incidence increased from 19.2 to 29.3, and averaged 25.8 (R2 0.65) with aAPC of 3.2%, with a potential to further rise (30.4 by 2020, p<0.001). Non-cardia location (17.8, p<0.001, aAPC 6.4%) and intestinal type of the tumor (17.0, p<0.001, aAPC 7.35%) were predominant. The observed overall five-year survival rate was 28.4% (95% CI 24.5;32.3) with a median survival time of 8.0 months (95% CI 6.6;9.4). Groups aged 40-49 and ≥70 had the lowest rates (24.4% and 22.1%, respectively, log-rank p 0.008), but the youngest individuals (18-39 years) showed the shortest median survival time, 5.0 months after diagnosis at the survival rate of 29.4%. Resectional surgery contributed significantly to the median survival time, 23.0 months vs. 6.0 in non-operated patients (log-rank p<0.001). Conclusion: GC in Aktobe region was featured by growing incidence and unsatisfactory five-year survival rates. Indigenous males of 60-69 years old with intestinal histology type, as well as the youngest patients irrespective of their gender, ethnicity, and other characteristics were recognized as high risk groups. Besides, relatively high aAPC 5.1% in the youngest revealed their further expected vulnerability. Further research is suggested to focus on risk factors, including gene expression profiling, to find out an accessible preventive strategy.
 

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