Document Type: Research Articles
Kasr Al-Ainy Center of Clinical Oncology and Nuclear Medicine (NEMROCK), Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.
Clinical Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Beni Suef University, Egypt.
Objective: Neoadjuvant concomitant chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection is the standard of care in the treatment of rectal cancer. We are investigating the value of adding combination chemotherapy oxaliplatin, irinotecan, leucovorin and fluorouracil (FOLFIRINOX) before neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Methods: Forty-one patients with middle and lower rectal cancer were included. FOLFORINOX were given every 2 weeks over 2 months (4 cycles) followed by concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Surgery was done 6-8 weeks after CRT and then adjuvant 4 months of FOLFOX or XELOX were given. The primary end point was sphincter preservation rate. Results: All patients received the four cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy FOLFORINOX, 38 patients completed CRT and only 29 patients underwent surgery. 32 patients were available for assessment (29 patients who underwent surgery and three patients who refuse surgery because of no evidence of disease by endoscopy, imaging and biopsy). Sphincter preservation was achieved in twenty-one patients (51.2%). Pathological complete response rate was 24.1%. After a median follow up of 24 months. Median PFS was 20 months and 2-years PFS was 62.3%. The median overall survival of all patients was not reached, while 2-years OS was 76.5%. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX followed by CRT for middle and lower rectal cancer is feasible, tolerable with satisfactory sphincter preservation rate.