Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of the Sex Differences in Cancer Mortality Rates in Japan from 1995 to 2015

Document Type: Research Articles

Author

Medical Information Center, Kyusyu University Hospital, Fukuoka city, Japan.

Abstract

Background: The current study aimed to analyze the sex differences in cancer mortality rates in Japan via an age-period-cohort (APC) analysis. Methods: We used data about cancer mortality rates from 1995 to 2015 in Japan based on the Vital Statistics survey. In addition to the data about mortality from all sites of cancer, we specifically used data about stomach, lung, colorectal, and liver cancers. A Bayesian APC analysis was performed to identify changes in mortality rates based on three effects, which were as follows: age, period, and cohort. Then, we finally calculated the mortality rate ratios for each effect between men and women. Results: The sex differences in age-adjusted mortality rates for all-sites cancer, lung cancer, and liver cancer were decreasing from 1995 to 2015, and the mortality rate ratios in terms of sex decreased from 2.17 in 1995 to 1.93 in 2015. Based on the results of the APC analyses, only minimal changes were observed in the mortality rate ratios for all types of cancer between men and women during the analyzed periods. The cohort effects began to decrease from the early 20th century in all types of cancer in both men and women, and the mortality rate ratios for all types of cancer between men and women began to increase in the cohorts born from 1926 to 1935. For all-sites cancer, the ratio increased from 0.49 (0.44, 0.57) in the cohort born from 1926 to 1930 to 0.81 (0.60, 1.03) in the cohort born from 1971 to 1975. Conclusion: The sex differences in cancer mortality rates were decreasing in the more recent born generations in Japan. If this trend continues, there will be a minimal difference in the morality rates in the following generations.
 

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