Document Type: Research Articles
Human Genetic Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
Doctoral Program in Clinical Pathology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
Objective: The genetic hallmark of CML is known as the appearance of t(9;22)(q34.1;q11.2) (BCR-ABL1) which is present in more than 95% of cases. Here, we demonstrated practical laboratory tools for monitoring of BCR-ABL1 transcripts in chronic myeloid leukemia patients undergoing TK inhibitor therapy. Methods: Real time quantitative PCR and direct sequencing were performed for monitoring of BCR-ABL1 transcripts in 245 treated CML. Results: At month 3 after first time point of monitoring, we found that 89% (218/245), 2% (5/245), and 9% (22/245) of patients are determined as optimal, warning, and failure response, respectively. The responses to TKI were slightly decreased at months 6 as following 73% optimal (180/245), 18% warning (43/245), and 9% failure response (22/245). Additionally, responses to TKI were gradually decreased at month 12 after first time point of monitoring as following 65% optimal (160/245), 13% warning (31/245), and 22% failure (54/245). We could detect 20% (49/245) of patients positive for BCR-ABL1 TKD mutations. Interestingly, one third (17 of 49) of TKD mutated cases were positive for compound/polyclonal mutation patterns. While major molecular response were observed in the majority of patients without TKD mutation, resistant to TKI were detected in patients with T315I mutation (n = 9; % mean IS = 8.1510, % median IS = 9.7000), compound/polyclonal mutations with T315I (n = 9; % mean IS = 13.0779, % median IS = 5.404), and other TKD mutations (n = 14; % mean IS = 8.1416, % median IS = 1.060), respectively. Conlusion: These practical laboratory techniques provided a more comprehensive understanding of CML progression during drug therapy and could be of benefit in earlier prognosis.