Serum Immunoglobulins as Diagnostic Markers in Smokeless Tobacco Users for Prevention of Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders

Document Type: Research Articles

Authors

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Dental Institute, Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences Ranchi, India.

Abstract

Background: Smokeless tobacco (SLT) remains a threat amongst a large population across the globe and particularly in India. Among the 28 known carcinogens in SLT, tobacco-specific nitrosamines are considered to be the most potent and it has been shown to cause immunomodulatory effects making the individual susceptible to various diseases. Immunoglobulins (Ig) form the defense against pathogens at the mucosal surfaces and SLT might interfere with its production and function. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to estimate the level of IgG and IgA in SLT patients and establish a correlation between them. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 subjects (34 khaini users and 26 gutkha users) were selected for the study. Complete demographic data and history was taken and clinical examination done to evaluate any oral mucosal changes. Venous blood samples were taken to analyze the serum immunoglobulin parameters. Results: Significant changes were observed in the serum IgA and IgG level in SLT users. Serum IgG level had a positive correlation whereas serum IgA had a negative correlation with the form of SLT and were statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The present study might serve as an early diagnostic tool and helpful in creating awareness on the hazards of using SLT among the Indian population as a despicable substitute to smoking tobacco. It also confers an imperative role into SLT mediated effects on immunoglobulins levels.

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