Document Type: Research Articles
Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Department of Cancer Biology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.
Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.
Department of Clinical and Chemical Pathology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.
Background: Thyroid cancer (TC) is a common malignant tumor, however the role of total vitamin D: 25(OH)D, Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) and Insulin Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) in the development of TC is still unclear. Aim: To assess the roles of 25(OH)D, PDGF and IGF-1 in the progression of thyroid diseases. METHODS: The serum levels of 25(OH)D, PDGF and IGF-1 were assessed in 70 patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), 60 patients with benign thyroid nodules (BN) compared to 60 normal controls (NC) using ELISA technique. Results: There was a significant decrease in the serum level of 25(OH)D in TC patients compared to NC (P<0.001) and BN patients (P=0.006). There was a significant increase in the serum levels of PDGF and IGF-1 in TC patients (P<0.001), and BN patients (P<0.001) compared to NC, while there were no significant differences between TC and BN (P=0.087, and 0.258; respectively). PDGF correlated significantly with IGF-1 (r=0.412, P<0.001), TSH (r=0.146, P=0.045), and inversely correlated with 25(OH)D (r= -0.156, P=0.013) and FT4 (r=-0.178, P=0.014). There was a significant inverse correlation between the serum levels of IGF-1 and FT4 (r=-0.172, P=0.017). Sensitivity and specificity for assessment of TC patients were (65.7% and 58.3%, P= 0.001) for 25(OH)D, (65.7% and 58.3%, P=0.021) for IGF-1, and (68.6% and 61.7%, P=0.006) for PDGF. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that serum 25(OH)D (OR=0.578, 95%CI= 0.426-0.783), IGF-1 (OR=1.019, 95%CI= 1.010-1.029) and PDGF (OR=1.007, 95%CI= 1.004-1.009) were considered independent risk factors for thyroid cancer (P<0.001, for all). Conclusion: 25(OH) D, IGF-1 and PDGF are significantly different in TC and BN cases compared to control. They have an important role in the progression of TC. However, these data should be validated on a larger sample size.