Effect of Zebularine in Comparison to and in Combination with Trichostatin A on CIP/KIP Family (p21Cip1/Waf1/Sdi1, p27Kip1, and p57Kip2), DNMTs (DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b), Class I HDACs (HDACs 1, 2, 3) and Class II HDACs (HDACs 4, 5, 6) Gene Expression, Cell Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis Induction in Colon Cancer LS 174T Cell Line

Document Type: Research Articles


Research Center for Non-Communicable Diseases, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran.


Background: A pattern of epigenetic modifications and changes, DNA methylation and histone modification, is central to many human cancers. A variety of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) have been demonstrated to be silenced because of histone deacetylation and DNA hypermethylation in several cancers. Recent in vitro studies have shown that two known mechanisms of epigenetic alteration consisting of methylation and histone deacetylation seem to be the best candidate mechanisms for inactivation of CIP/KIP family (p21Cip1/Waf1/Sdi1, and p27Kip1) in numerous cancers. Numerous investigations have indicated that DNA demethylating and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) can restore the CIP/KIP family gene expression. Previously, we evaluated the effect of trichostatin A (TSA) and 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-AZA-CdR) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The present study was designed to investigate the effect of zebularine in comparison to and in combination with trichostatin A on p21Cip1/Waf1/Sdi1, p27Kip1, p57Kip2, DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b, Class I HDACs (HDACs 1, 2, 3) and Class II HDACs (HDACs 4, 5, 6) gene expression, cell growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in colon cancer LS 174T cell line. Materials and Methods: The colon cancer LS 174T cell line was cultured and treated with zebularine and TSA. To determine cell viability, apoptosis, and the relative expression level of the genes, MTT assay, cell apoptosis assay, and qRT-PCR were done respectively. Results: Both compounds significantly inhibited cell growth, and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, both compounds increased p21Cip1/Waf1/Sdi1, p27Kip1, and p57Kip2 significantly. Additionally, zebularine and TSA decreased DNMTs and HDACs gene expression respectively. Conclusion: The zebularine and trichostatin A can reactivate the CIP/KIP family through inhibition of DNMTs and HDACs genes activity.


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