Evaluation of Antineoplasic Activity of Zingiber Officinale Essential Oil in the Colorectal Region of Wistar Rats

Document Type: Research Articles

Authors

1 Department of Basic Health Sciences, State University of Maringa, UEM, Brazil.

2 Department of Medicine, State University of Maringa, Brazil.

3 Department of Clinical Analysis and Biomedicine, State University of Maringa, Brazil.

4 General Pathology Laboratory, State University of Maringa, Department of Basic Health Sciences, Brazil.

Abstract

Introduction: Aberrant Crypt (AC) and Aberrant Crypt Focus (ACF) are considered pre-neoplasic lesions, ranging from hyperplasia to different degrees of dysplasia in the colon. This work aimed to evaluate and quantify the chemopreventive activity of Zingiber officinale essential oil in the colorectal region of Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: We extracted the essential oil from ginger rhizomes and carried out ACF induction, in rats, with 1.2 Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at a 20 mg/kg dose. The experimental groups were GI (negative control); GII (positive induction control); GIII (DMH + essential oil); GIV (DMH +5-Florouracil) and GV (essential oil). The histological techniques used were methylene blue, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) dyeing, and immunohistochemistry (IHQ). Results: The major essential oil compounds were citral (17.25%), δ-citral (10.25%), camphene (9.55%), α-zingiberene (7.57%), nerol (6.37%) and plelandrene (6.83%). For the presence of AC or ACF, we did not observe them in GI and GV, while in GII and GIII, they were observed, in high values, in both regions, but only in the distal region, there was a significant difference between them. For GIV, for both regions, there were significant lower numbers of AC when compared to GIII. As observed, with HE, there were hyperplastic and dysplastic ACF in the proximal and distal portions of the colon. For IHQ analyses, there were positively PCNA antibody marked cells in all experimental groups. Yet, there was no significant correlation of mitotic index among them. Moreover, the results of GIII compared to GIV were very similar. Conclusion: In this sense, the Zingiber officinale essential oil has good antioxidant potential because it presents a mixture of monoterpene and sesquiterpene compounds. Thus, it is able to develop a chemoprotective effect, as it presented similar results to the standard drug, showing cell proliferation control.

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