Serum level of Xanthine oxidase, Uric Acid, and NADPH oxidase1 in Stage I of Multiple Myeloma

Document Type: Research Articles


Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.


Objective: The etiology of multiple myeloma (MM) is not known. Enzymes such as xanthine oxidase (XO) and NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) as relevant sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production may play a crucial role in the incidence and progress of MM. Uric acid generated by XO has a controversial dual role in both the prevention and promotion of cancer. We conducted a case-control study and selected patients with stage I MM to investigate the status of XO, NOX1, and uric acid in the patients and controls. Methods: We used a sample of 33 patients with stage I MM and 30 healthy controls. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) measured the enzyme concentration of XO and NOX1, and the colorimetric method measured the serum level of uric acid. Results: Mean serum levels for XO in patients and controls were 6.17±0.83 ng/ml and 4.12±0.57 ng/ml (P<0.001). serum levels of NOX1 were 4.35±1.03 ng/ml in patients and 3.54±0.91 ng/ml in controls (P<0.001). Evaluating the levels of XO and NOX1 in male and female populations showed a significant difference in the male population (NOX1 P=0.002; XO P<0.001) and female population (NOX1 P=0.002; XO P<0.001). Also, a significant correlation was observed between the two enzymes only in the female population (Pearson correlation=0.5; P=0.006). A significant inverse correlation found between albumin and XO (Pearson correlation=-0.7, P<0.001) and NOX1 (Pearson correlation=-0.5, P<0.001). XO was correlated with B2-m (Pearson correlation=0.37, P=0.003). There was no significant difference in uric acid between patients (6.2±1.2 mg/dl) and controls (5.7±1 mg/dl) (P=0.2), and no correlation was found with XO. Conclusion: The present study indicates the possible role of XO and NOX 1 in the etiology of MM. Although we found no correlation between uric acid and XO, further studies will help clarify the function of uric acid in the pathogenesis of MM.


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