Identification of Potential Genes for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Prostate Cancer Susceptibility in Four X-chromosome Regions with High Frequency of Microvariant Alleles

Document Type: Research Articles


1 Department of Forensic Sciences, Faculty of Criminal Justice, Naif Arab University for Security Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

2 Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

3 Research Center, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

4 School of Biosciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Taylor University, Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.

5 Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor Malaysia.

6 Department of Technology and Natural Resources, Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat Johor, Malaysia.

7 Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Majmaah University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.


Background: The X-chromosome has been suggested to play a role in prostate cancer (PrCa) since epidemiological studies have provided evidence for an X-linked mode of inheritance for PrCa based on the higher relative risk among men who report an affected brother(s) as compared to those reporting an affected father. The aim of this study was to examine the potential association between the forensic STR markers located at four regions Xp22.31, Xq11.2-12, Xq26.2, and Xq28 and the risk of BPH and PrCa to confirm the impact of ChrX in the PrCa incidence. This may be helpful in the incorporation of STRs genetic variation in the early detection of men population at risk of developing PrCa. Methods: DNA samples from 92 patients and 156 healthy controls collected from two medical centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were analyzed for four regions located at X-chromosome using the Investigator® Argus X-12 QS Kit. Results: The results demonstrated that microvariant alleles of (DXS7132, DXS10146, HPRTB, DXS10134, and DXS10135) are overrepresented in the BPH group (p < 0.00001). Allele 28 of DXS10135 and allele 15 of DXS7423 could have a protective effect, OR 0.229 (95%CI, 0.066-0.79); and OR 0.439 (95%CI, 0.208-0.925). On the other hand, patients carrying allele 23 of DXS10079 and allele 26 of DXS10148 presented an increased risk to PrCa OR 4.714 (95%CI, 3.604-6.166). Conclusion: The results are in concordance with the involvement of the X chromosome in PrCa and BPH development. STR allele studies may add further information from the definition of a genetic profile of PrCa resistance or susceptibility. As TBL1, AR, LDOC1, and RPL10 genes are located at regions Xp22.31, Xq11.2-12, Xq26.2, and Xq28, respectively, these genes could play an essential role in PrCa or BPH.


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