Estimation of Salivary 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a Potential Biomarker in Assessing Progression towards Malignancy: A Case-Control Study

Document Type: Research Articles

Authors

1 Clinical Consultant, India.

2 Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, SRM Dental College, University Chennai, Ramapuram, India.

3 Department of Ophthalmology, Panimalar Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, India.

Abstract

Objective: Squamous Cell Carcinoma is almost always preceded by potentially malignant disorders in the oral cavity before malignant transformation. Characterization of  8-OHdG from the saliva offers a relatively non-invasive, simple and efficient methodology for monitoring oxidative stress in subjects of Premalignant oral disorders (PMOD) and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC). Hence the aim of the current study is to estimate the levels of salivary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a potential DNA Damage Biomarker in OSMF and OSCC patients in comparison to healthy individuals to assess disease progression from potentially malignant oral disorder to frank malignancy. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 90 patients [Oral Squamous cell carcinoma (n=30) and Oral Submucous Fibrosis (n=30) and healthy gender and age matched controls (n=30)]. 4ml of unstimulated saliva was collected from each of the subjects and was subjected to Sandwich ELISA for the quantification of salivary 8-OHdG. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA, and p value was set at ≤0.05. Results: The mean age of OSCC patients were 56.8±11.8 years. Smoking was the most prevalent adverse habit among this group (66.6%) followed by Smokeless tobacco chewers (40%). The mean age of OSMF patients was 46.2± 9.8 years. Smokeless tobacco was the most predominant habit among the OSMF patients (83.33%) followed by smoking (33.33%). The mean OHdG levels among the controls was 6.59±1.47 (ng/dl) and almost doubled in patients of OSMF 13.89±1.96(ng/dL) and further raised in OSCC patients 19.96 ± 2.11 (ng/dL). These levels showed a highly significant difference (p <0.0001) in mean on comparison by using one-way ANOVA. Pearson correlation between the groups were also statistically significant (p=0.000). Conclusion: There were significant differences in the concentration of salivary 8-OHdG between healthy controls, OSMF, and OSCC patients. Hence, 8-OHdG can be used as a novel biomarker of DNA damage to assess disease progression.

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