Document Type: Research Articles
Division of Anatomy, Department of Preclinical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, 12120, Thailand.
Division of Pharmacology, Department of Preclinical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, 12120, Thailand.
Faculty of Dentistry, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, 12120, Thailand.
Objective: Many studies suggested that fucoidan has anticancer potential. The objective of the present study was to determine the cytotoxic effects and mechanism of cell death induced by fucoidan extracted from Fucus vesiculosus on HSC-3 oral squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: HSC-3 cells were treated with 0, 100, 200, and 400 μg/mL of fucoidan. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle were measured with a flow cytometry-based assay. Chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were determined using Hoechst 33342 staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was determined using the JC-1 kit. The apoptotic, anti-apoptotic, and autophagic markers study were done by western blot analysis. Results: the viable cell number of treated HSC-3 cells was decreased. Moreover, treated cells were arrested in the G0/G1 phase. Annexin V/PI staining revealed that fucoidan could induce apoptosis in HSC-3 cells. Western blot analysis suggested the up-regulation of apoptotic markers including cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, Bax, and autophagic markers including LC3-II and Beclin-1 but down-regulation of anti-apoptotic markers, Bcl-2. Fucoidan could disturb ΔΨm and induce chromatin condensation with nuclear fragmentation. Conclusion: fucoidan has potential in anticancer properties against HSC-3 cells manifested by the induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and autophagy.