Document Type: Research Articles
Department of Epidemiology, Florida International University, USA.
Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.
Global Cancer Program, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.
Westat, 1600 Research Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20850, USA.
Ace Institute of Management, Pokhara University, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Department of Biostatistics, Robert Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work, Florida International University, Miami, Florida, USA.
Syrian Center for Tobacco Studies, Aleppo, Syrian Arab Republic.
Background: Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS) are common tactics of the tobacco industry to encourage adolescents to use tobacco products. Objective: The objective of the study is to assess the influence of TAPS on cigarette use and susceptibility to cigarette use among Nepalese adolescents. Materials and Methods: Data (n=2,878) were drawn from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey for Nepal (GYTS, 2011). Channel-specific and cumulative TAPS exposure were the primary exposures of the study. Six multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to examine current and ever cigarette use outcome with exposure to TAPS. Six binary logistic regression analyses were applied to determine the susceptibility to cigarette use when exposed to TAPS. Results: Channel-specific TAPS analyses show that indirect TAPS increases the odds of all the three outcomes; current cigarette use (OR=1.68, 95% CI=1.10-2.58), ever cigarette use (OR=1.81, 95% CI=1.23-2.65) and susceptibility to cigarette use (OR=1.65, 95% CI=1.25-2.19) after adjusting for the covariates. Television (TV) and movies exposure decreases the odds of susceptibility to cigarette use (OR=0.55, 95% CI=0.31-0.97). Cumulative TAPS analyses show that exposure to 5 sources of TAPS increases the odds of current cigarette use (OR=2.53, 95% CI=1.21-5.29). Being male increases the odds of all the three outcomes; current (OR=3.52, 95% CI=2.11-5.87), ever (OR=2.51, 95% CI=1.69-3.73) and susceptibility to cigarette use (OR=1.31, 95% CI=1.01-1.69). Social influence is likely to increase current (OR=6.47, 95% CI=2.50-16.74), ever (OR=1.79, 95% CI=1.10-2.93) and susceptibility to cigarette use (OR=1.66, 95% CI=1.25-2.21). Conclusion: Indirect TAPS exposure increased the current, ever, and susceptibility to cigarette use among Nepalese adolescents. Overall, the current use of cigarettes followed a dose-response relationship with TAPS exposure. The result implies a requirement of active surveillance of tobacco products and future research on adolescent-focused tobacco marketing in Nepal.