Cigarette and Hookah Smoking in Adolescent Students using World Health Organization Questionnaire Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS): A Pilot Study in Varamin City, Iran in 2016

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Tobacco Control Research Center, Iranian Anti-Tobacco Association, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Siences, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Vice Chancellor Research Affairs, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Proteomics Research Center and Department of Biostatistics, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.


Background and Objectives: Clues show that a large number of toxic agents, including carcinogenic, heavy metals, other particles, and high levels of nicotine, are effectively delivered through cigarette and hookah smoking. A pilot study was carried out in Varamin city, Iran in 2016 aimed to determine status of cigarette and hookah smoking in adolescent students using, Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) questionnaire. Methods: It was a cross-sectional study. At the first, of 63 Varamin city schools’ using cluster sampling, 48 schools were considered as primary clusters and 4 schools were selected randomly as sample clusters and students with 7, 8 and 9 years of education were studied. The total number of registered students was 1,108 and 1,075 responded to the study questionnaire. The main tool for collecting information used in this study was the GYTS questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization, was completed by subjects. Results: Totally, 479 (44.6%) students were boys and 596 (55.4%) were girls. Of 1,075 subjects the number of students at 7, 8 and 9 years education was 369 (34.3%), 362 (33.7%) and 344 (32.0%) respectively. The cigarette and hookah smoking using experience among the population was 9.2% and 25.5 respectively. Regarding the averages of the total score, although students have a relatively good attitude and specially behavioral intention (72% and 88% of the total score respectively), but only 47% of the total knowledge score by boys and 51% by girls, shows the average level of students’ awareness related the undesirable effects of smoking. Conclusions: Considering that one out of four students experienced cigarette and hookah smoking. Nearly half of the students are exposed to cigarette smoke at home or outdoors. The state of cigarette and hookah smoking in the country is alarming among school students.


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