Evaluation Study of Intraoperative Cytology Smear and Frozen Section of Glioma

Document Type: Research Articles

Authors

1 Department of Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, 16150 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

2 Department of Pathology, Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II, 15586 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

3 Department of Neuroscience, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, 16150 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

4 Department of Community Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, 16150 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Abstract

Objective: Glioma is the commonest primary malignant brain tumour. Diagnosis is made based on cytology smear, frozen section and histopathological examination. Intraoperative pathological diagnosis using either cytology smear, frozen section or combination of both, plays a crucial role in patient’s future management and prognosis. This study aims to determine the accuracy of cytology smear and frozen section in glioma, and to compare the difference between both techniques. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 22 cases of glioma diagnosed intraoperatively from January 2013 until August 2019 in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. The selected tissues were processed for cytology smear and frozen section. The remaining tissues were proceeded for paraffin section. The diagnosis was categorized as either low-grade or high-grade glioma based on cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, mitotic count, microvascular proliferation and necrosis. The sensitivity and specificity of frozen section and cytology smears were determined based on paraffin section being as the gold standard. The accuracy of both techniques was compared using statistical analysis. Results: The overall sensitivity and specificity of cytology smear were 100% and 76.9%, respectively. Meanwhile, the sensitivity and specificity of frozen section were 100% and 84.6%. There was no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy between cytology smear and frozen section in glioma (p>0.05). Conclusion: Cytology smears provides an alternative method for frozen section due to good cellularity and morphology on smear. Cytology smear is rapid, inexpensive, small amount of tissue requirement and less technical demand. This finding may benefit to the hospital or treatment centres where frozen section facility is unavailable.

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