Document Type: Research Articles
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.
Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Science, Max Rady College of Medicine, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3E 3P4, Canada.
Genetics of Non- Communicable Disease Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.
Children and Adolescent Health Research Center, Resistant Tuberculosis Institute, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.
Faculty of Medicine, Katowice School of Technology, 40-555 Katowice, Poland.
Autophagy Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
Introduction: Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and its ligands (PD-L1 and PD-L2) play a critical role as a regulator of immune-system cells, including T cell, natural killer T (NKT), monocytes, dendritic cells (DC), and B cells. Objective: This study aimed to find a possible association between PD-1 (rs11568821, rs2227981, rs2227982), and PD-L1 (rs4143815, rs2890658) variants and Breast Cancer (BC) risk in a sample of southeast Iranian women. Method: The case-control study consisted of 520 individuals, including 260 histologically confirmed BC patients and 260 non-cancer age-matching healthy women as the control group. The Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and Tetra-Primer Amplification Refractory Mutation System-Polymerase Chain Reaction (T-ARMS-PCR) methods were used for genotyping of PD-1 (rs11568821, rs2227981, rs2227982), and PD-L1 (rs4143815, rs2890658) polymorphisms. Results and Conclusion: Our findings indicated that the PD-L1 rs4143815 (G/C) variant meaningfully reduced the risk of BC. However, the PD-L1 rs2890658 variant increased the BC risk in the AC genotype as well as the A allele. Furthermore, we could not find a meaningful association between PD-1 rs11568821, PD-1 rs2227981, PD-1 rs2227982, and BC. Our team examined the possible association between variants and clinicopathological characteristics, including age, size of tumour, lymph node, histology, grade of tumour, estrogen and progesterone receptors status as well as human growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Our findings demonstrated that PD-L1 rs4143815, PD-L1 rs2890658, PD-1 rs2227982 had a significant association with age. Additionally, we found a significant relation between PD-1 rs2227982 variant and tumour size. Statistical analyzes of PD-1 rs2227981 and PD-1 rs11568821 variants showed a meaningful relation between tumour grade and tumour stage (p=0.006), respectively.