Vaccination against Hepatitis B: A Scoping Review

Document Type : Systematic Review and Meta-analysis


1 Department of Community Medicine, IMS & SUM Hospital, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, India.

2 School of Public Health, KIIT Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, India.


Objective: Elimination of viral hepatitis by 2030 as one of the international Sustainable Development Goals puts the hepatitis B vaccination on the forefront. However, barriers to vaccination reported in various studies are of concern. This study explores the global barriers for effective uptake of Hepatitis-B vaccination. Methods: A scoping review of studies reporting hepatitis B vaccination barriers was done using PMC data base and Google scholar search engine. About 803 journal articles and reports on hepatitis B barriers were retrieved but only 36 most relevant items during last 10 years were identified, pile sorted, grouped and analyze. Results: Overall 74 barriers have been identified for effective uptake of hepatitis-B vaccines. Most studies focused on non-zero dose of hepatitis B vaccine, One-third of the barriers are related to system issues, one-fourth of the barriers were related to caregiver education or awareness, fear of side effect, migration etc., one-fifth barriers were related to service provider issues like poor out-reach, home visits, poor communication and/relation with the caregivers, failure to identify unimmunized children etc., and other barriers were social-cultural issues. The review reveals limited availability and accessibility to health-facility based immunization, lack of awareness among caregivers, poor communication by the healthcare workers and negative relationships with the beneficiaries, cost of vaccine in private sector, inconvenience time and place of vaccination etc. as the major barriers for hepatitis B vaccination. Barriers varied from country to country. Conclusion: Myriad barriers for reduced hepatitis-B vaccine uptake need to be addressed contextually as countries are at different stages of hepatitis-B vaccination implementation.


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