The Cytotoxic, Apoptotic Induction, and Cell Cycle Arrest Activities of Solanum nigrum L. Ethanolic Extract on MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cell

Document Type: Research Articles


Center for Pharmaceutical and Medical Technology, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, LAPTIAB Building 611, Puspiptek Area, Serpong, Tangerang-Selatan, Indonesia.


Objective: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the cytotoxic, cell cycle arrest, and apoptotic induction activities of the fruit of S. nigrum L. ethanolic-70% extract against MCF-7 human breast cancer cell. Methods: S. nigrum L. ripe fruit was blended and macerated with ethanol 70% and the filtrate was evaporated. The semisolid extract was then analyzed phytochemically. Cytotoxic analysis was performed using MCF-7 cancer and Vero normal cell by MTT method and followed by apoptotic and cell cycle arrest analysis using flow cytometry. Results: The phytochemical analysis resulted that extract contained total phenolic and flavonoid compounds with the level of 1.545±0.080% and 0.212±0.002%, respectively. Glycitin was the highest level of isoflavone compound, namely, 375.0844 mg/100 g extract. The cytotoxic evaluation revealed that the extract exhibited a selectively toxic effect between cancer and normal cell. The extract inhibited MCF-7 proliferation with IC50 value about 40.77±4.86 μg/mL and conversely toward Vero cell at lower cytotoxic activity with an IC50 value of 298.96±27.28 μg/mL. Evaluation of MCF-7 cell cycles demonstrated that the extract arrested the cell cycle in the S phase and continued to the G2/M phase at the half of the IC50 value. The extract induced apoptotic of MCF-7 cell about 43.31% in which this activity was nearly the same with doxorubicin as a positive control (59.14%). However, solamargine was predicted as the most active anticancer compounds by a molecular docking study so that it was suggested to measure the level of this compound. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the fruit of S. nigrum L. ethanolic-70% extract demonstrated cytotoxic activity toward MCF-7 breast cancer cell and nontoxic on Vero normal cell. Solamargine was predicted as the most active anticancer compound. This extract had an opportunity to be developed as a potential anticancer agent to overcome breast cancer diseases.


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