Cardiac, Hepatic and Renal Dysfunction and IL-18 Polymorphism in Breast, Colorectal, and Prostate Cancer Patients

Document Type: Research Articles


1 Department of Biology, College of Science, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

2 Department of Medical Analysis, Faculty of Science, Tishk International University, Erbil, Iraq.

3 Department of Midwifery, College of Nursing, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

4 Department of Cancer Registry, Cancer Control Unit, Erbil Directorate of Health, Erbil, Iraq.

5 Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

6 Internal Laboratory, Hawler Teaching Hospital, Erbil Directorate of Health, Erbil, Iraq.

7 College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

8 Center for Hematology and Regenerative Medicine (HERM), Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, 141 83 Stockholm, Sweden.

9 Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

10 Medical Laboratory Analysis, Cihan University-Sulaimaniya, Slemani, Iraq.

11 Emergency Hospital, Duhok General Health Directorate, Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

12 Department of Pathological Analysis, Faculty of Science, University of Knowledge, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

13 College of Pharmacy, Hawler Medical University, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

14 Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Health Technical College, Erbil Polytechnic University, Erbil, Iraq.


Introduction: The present study aimed to determine the alterations in the serum levels of tumor markers used to evaluate cardiac, renal and liver function, and detect the interleukin (IL)-18 rs1946518 polymorphism in breast (BC), colorectal (CRC) and prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 65 female BC, 116 CRC, 79 PCa and 88 myocardial infarction (MI) patients, and 110 healthy individuals to determine the concentration of tumor and cardiac markers. Furthermore, the IL-18 rs1946518 polymorphism was assessed using amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR. Results: The serum levels of the tumor markers cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and total prostate-specific antigen (TPSA) were significantly increased in cancer patients compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, the activity of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and creatine kinase‑myocardial band (CK-MB) was enhanced in MI patients, however, their activity was unchanged in cancer patients. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and the serum concentration of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and urea were markedly elevated in CRC and PCa patients, respectively, compared with the control group. Although, no significant differences were observed in the -607 C/A polymorphism and allele frequency of IL-18 among BC, CRC patients and healthy individuals, the odds ratio (OR) was 1.75 for both C and A allele in BC patients. Therefore, the -607 C/A polymorphism could be considered as a risk factor for BC. Conclusion: The aforementioned results suggested that tumor markers could be considered as excellent biomarkers for the early detection of BC, CRC and PCa, whereas the concentration of liver enzymes could serve as an alternative indicator for the diagnosis of CRC and PCa. Additionally, the rs1946518 polymorphism in the IL-18 gene could be considered as a risk factor for the occurrence of BC, CRC and PCa.


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