Document Type : Research Articles
Division of Anatomy, Department of Preclinical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, 12120, Thailand.
Research Unit in Nutraceuticals and Food Safety, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, 12120, Thailand.
Graduate Program in Bioclinical Sciences, Chulabhorn International College of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, 12120, Thailand.
Center of Excellence in Molecular Biology and Pharmacology of Malaria and Cholangiocarcinoma, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, 12120, Thailand.
Division of Parasitology, Department of Preclinical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, 12120, Thailand.
Objective: Many previous studies reported that fucoidan has antitumor activities. The objective of the present study was to determine the cytotoxic effects and related mechanisms of cell death induced by fucoidan extracted from Fucus vesiculosus on CL-6 cholangiocarcinoma cell. Methods: CL-6 and OUMS cells were treated with 0, 100, 200, and 300 μg/mL of fucoidan. MTT assay was used to determine cytotoxicity. Flow cytometry-based assay was used to examine the distribution of apoptosis and cell cycle. The changes in nuclear morphology were determined using Hoechst 33,342 staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was evaluated using the JC-1 kit. The apoptotic, anti-apoptotic, and cell cycle-related proteins study were examined by Western blot analysis. Results: The relative viable cell number of treated CL-6 cells was decreased but no effect was observed in OUMS normal cells. Furthermore, treated cells were arrested in the G0/G1 phase with down-regulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4. Annexin V/PI staining with flow cytometry analysis suggested that fucoidan could induce apoptosis in CL-6 cells. Western blot study revealed the up-regulation of apoptotic markers including Bax, cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase-3, but down-regulation of anti-apoptotic markers, cl-2. Moreover, fucoidan could induce nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation with alteration of ΔΨm. Conclusion: Fucoidan exerts antitumor properties against CL-6 cholangiocarcinoma cells illustrated by the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.