Document Type: Research Articles
Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India.
Department of Transfusion Medicine, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India.
Division of Preventive Medicine, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan.
Department of Clinical Engineering and Medical Technology, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, Niigata, Japan.
Background: Typhoid (Salmonella typhi and paratyphi) carriers and gall bladder cancer (GBC) are endemic in northern India. Results of previous studies about association of typhoid carriers with GBC are inconsistent. We studied antibodies against Salmonella typhi and paratyphi in serum samples of patients with GBC. Methods: We performed modified Widal test for antibodies against Salmonella typhi (Vi and O) and Salmonella paratyphi (AO and BO) antigens in patients with GBC (n=100), xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC, n=24), chronic cholecystitis (CC, n=200) and healthy controls (HC, n=200). Results: Serum antibodies against Salmonella were more frequently positive in GBC (22%) and XGC (29%), particularly in males in age ≥50 years (GBC: 47% and XGC: 50%) vs. HC (0) (p <0.01). Vi antibody was more common in GBC (13%, OR:9.8) and XGC (8%, OR:5.9) than HC (2%). O antibody was more common in GBC (8%, OR: 8.6) and XGC (8%, OR: 9.0) than HC (1%). O antibody was also more common in males with GBC (12%) than CC (1%) and HC (1%) (P=0.02 and p <0.001, respectively). AO (6%) and BO (4%) antibodies were detected in GBC, particularly in males, than HC (0), (p <0.01). Salmonella antibodies were more frequent in GBC with GS than those without GS (50% vs. 20%, OR=3.94, P=0.01). Conclusions: Salmonella carrier state was more common in GBC and XGC, particularly in elderly males than HC. The Vi antibody was more common in GBC and XGC than HC. Salmonella infection was more common in GBC with GS than those without GS.