Adverse Effects of Busulfan Plus Cyclophosphamide versus Busulfan Plus Fludarabine as Conditioning Regimens for Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Department of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Taleghani Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Seience, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Hematology and Oncology, Taleghani Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Seience, Tehran, Iran.


Background: The side effects of conditioning regimens on the success rate of allogeneic transplantation around the world have been challenging. In this study, we aimed to investigate the side effect of Bu/Cy and Bu/Flu regimens on our patients who underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Methods: We analyzed 180 patients receiving bone marrow transplantation in Taleghani Hospital, in Tehran, Iran between April 2016 and December 2019. Patients in group A received a combination of intravenous busulfan 0.8 mg/kg QID over two hours for 4 consecutive days (12.8 mg/kg in total)(Savani et al., 2006) and cyclophosphamide 60 mg/kg per day for two consecutive days. Patients in group B received busulfan the same as the first group in combination with fludarabine equal to 40 mg/m² per day. Patients were followed up at regular intervals up to two years after transplantation. Result: Various items were evaluated for patients, including cardiopulmonary function, psychological disorders, GVHD, and endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism, fertility, or gonad dysfunction.  Primary hypothyroidism developed in 13.3% and 11.1% of the Bu/Cy and Bu/Flu groups, respectively (p=0.230). None of the patients in either group experienced infertility or gonad dysfunction. In group A versus group B, pulmonary diseases were detected in  4.4% versus 6.6% of BMT recipients, respectively (p = 0.223). In both groups, mitral and tricuspid regurgitation were observed in patients (8.9% vs. 11.1%; p = 0.189). Incidence of Psychological disorders was no significant difference between the two groups. 32.2% of group A versus 34.45%  of group B had skin and liver GVHD, respectively (p = 0.235). Conclusion: The therapeutic-related adverse effects of the two conditioning regimens in patients who underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplant were almost similar. To improve quality of life and overall survival among BMT patients, careful evaluation of treatment-related complications should be part of the regular follow-up of them.


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