Document Type : Research Articles
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Port Said University, Port Said, Egypt.
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.
Department Chest Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.
Department of Clinical Oncology & Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.
Department Internal Medicine, Oncology Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.
ackground: Lung cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancies. Human endogenous retrovirus-H long terminal repeat-associating protein 2 (HHLA2) is a recently discovered ligand of the B7 family. Blocking this immune checkpoint has become an important treatment option for lung cancer. Methods: The study includes 62 biopsy specimens either bronchoscopic or CT-guided biopsies diagnosed as lung cancer in Hospitals of Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt during the period from 2016 to 2020. Immunohistochemical Staining for HHLA2 and EGFR was performed. HHLA2 expression was assessed in different pathological types of lung Cancer, and it was correlated with other clinicopathologic parameters and patient prognosis. Results: We found a significant association between HHLA2 expression and metastasis. About 83% of patients presented with metastasis showed positive expression of HHLA2 compared to 44.4% in patients with no metastasis (p=0.02). Also, results show significant mild positive correlation between expression of HHLA2 and EGFR markers (p=0.045). The mean OS time in cases with positive HHLA2 expression was nearly half that of patients with negative expression of the markers. However, this difference was not statistically significant. But, PFS of patients was significantly lower among the group with positive expression of HHLA2 compared to the group with negative expression of HHLA2 (p= 0.01). Conclusions: This study reports that recently discovered, HHLA2 is over expressed in lung cancer associating with higher stage. It is also correlated with EGFR overexpression. HHLA2 could serve as a predictor of progression and distant metastasis. Also, it has potential to be effective immune target in lung cancer immunotherapy such as checkpoint blockade and antibody-drug conjugate treatment.