Document Type : Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Department of Medicine, University of the Philippines-Philippine General Hospital, Manila, Philippines.
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of the Philippines-Philippine General Hospital, Manila, Philippines.
Objective: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the efficacy of different mHealth interventions in increasing colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates. Methods: A literature search for eligible studies was done in ClinicalTrials.gov, PubMed, and Scopus in October 2020. Included studies were randomized controlled trials done on adults due for CRC screening, who received either an mHealth intervention to promote screening or usual care. The primary outcome from these studies was completion of CRC screening. Two reviewers independently worked on selecting studies, collecting data, and determining risk of bias. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for CRC screening rates were summarized into a Forest plot. Results: A total of ten trials from three continents were included in the qualitative analysis. Risk of bias is low in terms of randomization, but high in terms of participant blinding, due to the nature of the interventions. Meta-analysis of four trials showed low clinical and statistical heterogeneity (I2=0%). Overall, the use of mHealth interventions is associated with higher CRC screening uptake when compared to usual care (AOR 1.33; 95% CI, 1.20-1.46). This effect was seen across different types of mHealth interventions, which included automated and non-automated telephone education and text-message reminders. Conclusion: This study showed that mHealth is associated with increased CRC screening participation regardless of the type of intervention used.