Development of Mobile App for Breast Examination Awareness Using Health Belief Model: A Qualitative Study

Document Type : Research Articles


1 School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

2 School of Medical and Life Sciences, Sunway University, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.

3 Graduate School of Business, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia.

4 Department of Surgery, Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.


Background: Mobile health technologies are widely being used for delivering health behaviour interventions. However, there is insufficient evidence that they are integrating theory and only a few researchers utilized a qualitative approach in their study. Objectives: This paper aims to identify requirements in developing a breast examination awareness mobile app based on the component of the Health Belief Model (HBM) for integration in health promotion strategy. Methods: A qualitative approach using semi-structured in-depth interview was utilized in this study. A purposive sampling method was conducted among public women attending hospital services, software and content experts in a tertiary teaching hospital in the East coast of Peninsular Malaysia. These interviews were recorded, transcribed and organized using NVIVO 11. The main themes were identified through thematic analysis of the interview transcripts.  Results: A total of 37 participants recruited in this study. The themes that emerged from the analysis are vulnerability, forecasting, reactive, influence, outcome and obstacles. The sub-themes findings supported the HBM’s component in terms of the requirement for are an infographic risk factor, video (symptoms, self-examination), info (metastasis, survival, screening, triple assessment, treatment, myth and facts, benefit of early treatment, support groups), features (screening reminder, sharing button, prompt) and mobile app’s design. Conclusion: The research findings could provide a guide for future app development from public women, content and software experts.  The information will be used to develop a breast examination awareness mobile app integrated with health theories.


Main Subjects

Volume 22, Issue 10
October 2021
Pages 3151-3163
  • Receive Date: 28 March 2021
  • Revise Date: 29 July 2021
  • Accept Date: 15 October 2021
  • First Publish Date: 15 October 2021