Document Type : Research Articles
Department of Central Labs, National Nutrition Institute, Cairo, Egypt.
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt.
Department of Clinical and Chemical Pathology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.
Objective: MicroRNAs (MiRNAs) regulate mammalian cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis by altering the expression of other genes and serve multiple roles in tumorigenesis and progression. Proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase (RAF-1) functions as a part of the MAPK/ERK signal transduction pathway. The present study aim was to prospectively evaluate MicroRNA 106a (MiR-106a) and RAF-1 as a diagnostic and prognostic factor in early prediction of breast cancer (BC), recurrence and early detection of distant metastasis as well as to analyses the statistical correlation between MiR-106a and RAF-1 levels and clinical-pathological parameters including tumor size, lymph node, histological type and grading. Methods: Sera and plasma of 30 normal women and 50 women with breast carcinoma were assayed for MiR-106a by RT-qPCR as well as levels of Hb, WBCs and platelets count and RAF-1 by solid phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: The patients’ characteristics, they were classified according to grade into 8% grade I, 66% grade II, 22% grade III and 4% grade IV. The stages were classified according to the TNM system as stage II was the highest percentage 66%, while the lowest percentage was 10% for stage I and 24% for stage III. Also, Hb% and RAF-1 levels were significantly decreased in breast cancer patients as compared with healthy control. On the other hand, MiRNA-106a gene expression was non-significantly increased in positive lymph node metastasis patients (FC=3.66) when compared to patients with negative lymph node metastasis (FC=3.51). In addition, MiR-106a was significantly up-regulated in breast cancer patients with a fold of change 3.63 when compared to control samples. Conclusion: Expression of MiR-106a gene can be used as a diagnostic and prognostic noninvasive biomarker which can stimulates breast cancer cell invasion and proliferation through downregulation of Raf-1 levels.