Document Type : Research Articles
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani 34190, Thailand.
The College of Pharmacotherapy of Thailand, Nonthaburi 11000, Thailand.
Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.
Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.
Objective: To investigate the prevalence of chemotherapy-induced adverse events and the associated risk factors in pediatric patients with osteosarcoma. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study enrolled 90 pediatric osteosarcoma patients (with 1,017 chemotherapy cycles) treated at Srinagarind Medical Center, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand, between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2018. The prevalence of major adverse events and a correlation between baseline characteristics and adverse events were analyzed using a generalized estimating equation model. Result: The prevalence of adverse events in 90 pediatric osteosarcoma patients (with 1,017 chemotherapy cycles) was determined as chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (29.2%; n=296), hepatotoxicity (21.2%; n=215), anemia (70.69%; n=719), neutropenia (26.65%; n=271), and thrombocytopenia (13.65%; n=139). Factors associated with chemotherapy-induced hepatotoxicity included methotrexate dose ≥ 12 g/m2 (odds ratio [OR] 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22–1.39; P<0.001), plasma concentration of methotrexate at 72 hours >0.1 μM (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.19–1.25; P<0.001), and pre-hydration rate ≤ 125 mL/m2/h (OR 1.10; 95% CI 1.07–1.12; P<0.001). Conclusion: Major adverse events are becoming more common in pediatric osteosarcoma patients, and risk factors include larger chemotherapy doses, higher plasma methotrexate concentrations, and a slower pre-hydration rate. The outcomes of the study could aid in the better treatment of toxicity in children with osteosarcoma.