Document Type : Research Articles
Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Mongolian National University of Medical Sciences, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
Department of Cancer Disease, Institute of Medical Sciences, Mongolian National University of Medical Sciences, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
Department of Radiology, National Cancer Center, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
Central Research Laboratory, Institute of Medical Sciences, Mongolian National University of Medical Sciences, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
Objective: We aimed to identify gastric cancer-related risk factors and evaluate the efficacy of screening ABC(D) method in determining high risk gastric cancer individuals in Mongolian population. Methods: A total of 240 participants (120 gastric cancer patients and 120 healthy individuals) were included in this study. Data were collecting using a structured questionnaire consisting of 56 questions covering 5 categories. Serum Helicobacter pylori IgG (H. pylori IgG), pepsinogen I (PGI), and pepsinogen II (PGII) were tested in one third of all the participants (40 gastric cancer patients and 40 controls). PGI, PGII, and H. pylori IgG levels were measured using GastroPanel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (Biohit, Helsinki, Finland). Results: Habits of having leftover meals (OR 2.22, 95%CI 1.27-3.86, p<0.01), daily consumption of tea with salt (OR 1.97, 95%CI 1.18-3.30, p<0.01), smoking on an empty stomach (OR 2.44, 95%CI 1.11-5.37, p<0.05), daily consumption of vegetables (OR 0.45, 95%CI 0.27-0.76, p<0.01), and daily consumption of fruit juice (OR 0.36, 95%CI 0.15-0.85, p<0.05), family history of gastric cancer (parents OR 2.88, 95%CI 1.07-7.78, p<0.05, siblings (OR 3.09, 95%CI 1.09-8.81, p<0.05), and history of gastric diseases (OR 3.65, 95%CI 2.10-6.35, p<0.0001) were identified as protective factors. A low PGI level (<35.25ng/ml) and low PGI/II ratio (<4) were associated with gastric cancer risk. According to ABC(D) method, groups C and D had higher proportion of gastric cancer cases than group A and B (group C, OR 7.50, 95%CI 1.20-47.05, p<0.05; group D, OR 8.3, 95%CI 1.33-51.26, p<0.05). Conclusion: Our findings suggested that gastric cancer risk was more closely related to eating habits, smoking, family history, and precancerous lesions. ABC(D) method seems to be a plausible alternative or supplementary method for stratifying patients at high risk of gastric cancer in this country.